The word 'person' is a legal word in the American system of law and one of the most important to comprehend if you wish to know the law. The word "person" is a word of legalese; the language of the court.
The word person is defined in Black's Law Dictionary (as well as other law dictionaries), the definition is almost a whole page long to describe the word "person". The word person breaks down into two categories: artificial persons and natural persons.
A person in the general sense to the public is a living human being,...
a person in the general sense in the legal arena is a non-living entity meaning a corporation or a human being in a corporate capacity meaning that the person is on the clock working whether it's for the government in an official capacity or a person working for a corporation (either working for him or herself or working for someone else's company).
When a statute or code uses the word "person"...majority of the time it is not referring to the people as in men or women but refers to artificial persons such as corporations, government entities, and persons who are in a corporate capacity because they are on the clock working for a corporate entity engaged in commerce.
When a person (or persons) gets off work and clocks out from their job (occupation) they are no longer called a person/(s) because they are not in a corporate capacity they are then called natural persons.
Person. "persons" are of two kinds, natural and artificial. A natural person is a human being. Artificial persons include a collection or succession of natural persons forming a corporation; a collections of property to which the law attributes the capacity of having rights and duties. The latter class of artificial persons is recognized only to a limited extent in our law. Examples are the estate of a bankrupt or deceased person. Hogan v. Greenfield, 58 Wyo. 13, 122 P. 2d 850, 853. Black's Law Dictionary 4th Ed. page 1299-1300
A corporation may also be owned by just one person not just multiple, notice how the above definition states " include a collection of natural persons" but it is not limited to multiple persons.
Individual. As a noun, this term denotes a single person as distinguished from a group or class, and also, very commonly, a private or natural person as distinguished from a partnership,corporation, or association; but it is said that this restrictive signification is not necessarily inherent in the word, and that it may, in proper cases, include artificial persons. State v. Bell Telephone Co., 36 Ohio St. 310, 38 Am.Rep. 583. As an adjective, "individual" means pertaining or belonging to, or characteristic of, one single person, either in opposition to a firm, association, or corporation, or considered in his relation thereto. Black's Law Dictionary 4th Ed. p. 913
EXCERPTS FROM THE U.S. SUPREME COURT:
Corporations are "persons" as that word is used in the first clause in the XIVth Amendment; Convington & L. Turnp. Co. v. Sandford, 164 U.S. 578, 17 S.Ct. 198 (1896)
Constitutional provision forbidding state to deny to any person “equal protection of the laws”
extends to corporate as well as natural persons. Power Manufacturing Company v. Saunders, 274 U.S. 490 (1927).
“[I]n common usage, the term ‘person’ does not include the sovereign, [and] statutes employing the phrase are ordinarily construed to exclude it.” United States v. Cooper Corp., 312 U.S. 600, 604, 61 S.Ct. 742, 743, 85 L.Ed. 1071 (1941); accord, United States v. Mine Workers, 330 U.S. 258, 275, 67 S.Ct. 677, 687, 91 L.Ed. 884 (1947). Particularly is this true where the statute imposes a burden or limitation, as distinguished from conferring a benefit or advantage. United States v. Knight, 39 U.S. 301, 315, 14 Pet. 301, 315, 10
L.Ed. 465 (1840). There is nevertheless “no hard and fast rule of exclusion,” United States v. Cooper **2538 Corp., supra, 312 U.S., at 604–605, 61 S.Ct., at 743; and much depends on the context, the subject matter, legislative history, and executive interpretation. Wilson v. Omaha Indian Tribe, 442 U.S. 653 (1979)
EXCERPTS FROM LOWER COURTS AND OTHER AUTHORITIES:
"The word ‘person’ is defined to include firms and corporations."State ex rel. Joseph R. Peebles Sons Co. v. State Board of Pharmacy, 127 Ohio St. 513, 189 N.E. 447, 448 (1934)
"the term ‘person‘ includes ‘partnerships‘" In re Julian, 22 F.Supp. 97 (1938)
"A partnership is a legal entity distinct from its members" In re Julian, 22 F.Supp. 97 (1938)
The estate of a decedent is a person, Billings v. State, 107 Ind. 54, 6 N.E. 914, 7N.E. 763, 57 Am.Rep. 77.
The word “person” in legal terminology is perceived as a general word which normally includes in its scope a variety of entities other than human beings. See e. g. 1 U.S.C. s 1. Church of Scientology of California v. U.S. Dept. of Justice, 612 F.2d 417 (1979)
56 American Jurisprudence 2d Sec. 5 page 74 (1979) A municipal corporation has been held to be a "person" within the meaning of that term as used in statutes.15 Statutes very frequently specifically include political subdivisions within the meaning of persons.16
A county is a person in a legal sense, Lancaster Co. v. Trimble, 34 Neb. 752, 52 N.W. 711; but a sovereign is not; In re Fox, 52 N.Y. 535, 11 Am.Rep. 751; U.S. v. Fox 94 U.S. 315, 24 L.Ed. 192 Black's Law Dictionary, 4th Ed., p 1300
Statutes may, of course, be so worded as to require a license for the carrying on of certain activities only in the event that they are carried on by a corporation. In the absence of particularization or exemption, however, a licensing statute will ordinarily be construed as applying regardless of the form of the entity or person carrying on the specified activities. 51 Am. Jur.2d., LICENSES AND PERMITS, PART ONE, GENERAL PRINCIPLES, I. GENERAL, §42. Generally, p. 49 V. WHO IS SUBJECT TO LICENSE LEGISLATION
"Persons are also divided by the law into either natural persons, or artificial. Natural persons are such as the God of nature formed us: artificial are such as created and devised by human laws for the purposes of society and government; which are called corporations of body politic." 1 William Blackstone Commentaries on the Laws of England Chapter 1 of Persons page 119
In the American system of law the word "person" does not include a state or the federal government both of which are considered sovereigns, the several states and the U.S. government are said to actually have "clipped-sovereignty" due to the constitutional limitations.
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